Category: Reading

The American Culture

Many philosophers have come up with different definitions of culture. All the definitions that are available for this word are backed up with ideologies and some facts. Therefore, it becomes hard to rule out that an individual definition does not fit the word. However, some philosophers and institutions can be considered to have provided a more detailed definition for culture. The Centre for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) at the University of Minnesota has one of the best definitions for this word. Here, culture is defined as a pattern of character traits, common knowledge, and understanding shared with a group of people through socialization.

One of the main reasons why this definition can be considered to be the best is the fact that it acknowledges culture is not all about behaviors but a lot of factors combined (Lysgard 187). Character trait of individuals is just one element that can be used to distinguish cultural differences. Other things such as knowledge, language, understanding, and fashion also define the culture of a particular group of people. The definition given by the University of Minnesota is also clear on the fact that culture is attained from socialization.

Some people define culture as the shared knowledge that a group creates for the sake of expressing themselves. The definition is okay since it has stated that a generation will always need a common way of expressing their opinions. However, it does not represent culture as a broad aspect as it is defined by CARLA. A good definition of culture is one that sees more than just a common knowledge and language amidst the community (Birukou and Blanzieri 21).

Linton in his book, The Cultural Background of Personality, defines culture as a connection of behaviors within a group of people who can also transmit these traits to other generations. The definition given by the University of Minnesota does not state anything about members of a community being the ones to communicate cultural elements to other interested parties from other communities. There is a possibility that a person can adopt a culture through reading and watching (Lysgard 193).

American culture is one that is a combination of people from different beliefs. The United States has a significant population of 320 million as per the latest census. Immigrants have also been finding a real home in the U.S. It is an indication that America is an intercultural community. People from Africa, Asia, and Europe have over the years adopted into the American system (Zimmermann). Therefore, the American culture is considered to be a configuration of various lifestyles. Over centuries, many changes have been seen in the lifestyle of the American people read about this in the american identity essay.

We can describe the current Culture in the United States under different areas of a community. One key factor to look at is the aspect of language in this community. According to the statistics released by the U.S Census Bureau, there are over three hundred languages spoken in the country. It stands out to be one of the unique elements of the American culture. Despite having a lot of languages in this country, there are four major non-English ones widely spoken today. They include German, French, Spanish and Chinese.

The religious end of the American culture today is also a factor to analyze. Many years back, the United States was considered to have accepted Christianity as the only option for religion. In those days, most people were Christians while a few groups could openly say that they have no religious affiliation. The pattern started to change over years as people from different parts of the globe moved into the country. Today, the nation’s culture is made up of individuals from various religious beliefs. The data released by ABC polls in 2012 indicated that 83% of people in America are attached to the beliefs of Christians, while other religions such as Judaism and Islamic believes have been introduced. However, the other religions are considered to be minors since their representation is less than two percent. It shows that there is still a big number of Americans who do not relate to any religious stands.

Art is another crucial element in the culture of the people of America. Today, American movies and Television shows are being watched across the globe with a lot of positive responses being reported. Hollywood has been the center of quality productions in the world for many years now. On the other hand, Broadway is proving America to be also a home to theatrical presentations. In the field of music, the U.S has musicians who perform across the globe. It is a sign that the American culture is being spread worldwide through music.

The American people are considered to be a pluralistic society that easily accepts new individuals into their community. For a long time, the U.S citizens have been tolerant thus immigrants find an easy time to adopt the system (Zimmermann). Recently, the Government of the United States has announced that it will accommodate more refugees from different parts of the world within a year.

Despite having a lot of positive elements of the American culture, there are few unpleasant traits among some Americans. For instance, the younger citizens are reportedly becoming law-offenders. Today, most of the traffic offenders in the U.S are the young people. They are considered to be always in a hurry, and they also think going against the laws without hurting someone is not a crime. It is the reason young drivers are nowadays disobeying traffic lights when the other side of the highway is clear (Olson).

Most of the American citizens are known to have the culture of being law-abiding. However, this is prone to change in the future with many young people getting involved in crimes. If caution is not taken early and the law-breakers penalized, the next generation is going to be hard to control (Olson). The culture of tolerance might also fade in the coming years. It is going to be hard for citizens who break laws to remain tolerant with new people trying to fit into their systems.

However, the culture of America is expected to become more diverse in the coming generations. Taking an example of the film industry, Hollywood has opened up, and many artists from other parts of the world are now making it big there. We expect more foreign actors and actresses to perform in Hollywood movies. The American culture is also expected to spread across the globe through music. From the trends, U.S hip hop and RnB artists will in the future stage more performances in other continents. As the culture of America diversifies, it is also going to be adopted in many parts of the world.

Language and Communication: The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat by Oliver Sacks


Language is a way of communication, that is either written or spoken and consists of the use of words in conventional or structured ways. Structured convention involves the use of symbols which are arranged in particular means for purposes of conveying meaning. Language can either be natural or artificial. The native language is established by human cultures while the fake expression is created by small teams or individuals (Beattie & Ellis, 2017). The target example has failed to use the concept of language and communication to discuss the issue of transport properly.

In the target example, Sacks needed to use language and communication to guide the audience to understand the major ideas of the various concepts of the disorders of neurology. The author has organized the stories into four parts for easier communication with the audience. As a way of communicating with the audience, the author describes incidental moments of all the patients in all stories. The approach is considered to be not only engaging but also empowering. As readers, the author introduces a language to the readers that makes sense to them throughout the piece about natural science (Cappellin, 2015). The word used in the books makes it easy for readers to understand the manner in which the brain works.

The information provided in the target example as far as natural science is concerned can be beneficial to general readers who are not used to psychology and Neurology issues. Sacks utilize a public as well as engaging language that assists the broad audience in comprehending the discussed stories. The language enables the audience with postscripts that define the historical backgrounds or advanced studies and unique codes in the Neurology discipline (Cappellini, 2015). The style and communication in the various stories enable the readers to involve the worlds of the patients hence promoting understanding.

Unfortunately, the introductory part of the book may be confusing to the average readers. In the opening part, the author mentions Aphemia, Aphonia and other neurological words for the first time (Cappellini, 2015).Even though the terms are part of the neurological language, average readers who do not have the neurological background are likely to remain in the dark or not to understand the point being driven home at all. The author needs to use the characteristics of excellent communication and language to describe each of the terms he introduces so that no audience is left behind. The book uses its stories to bring the words to the language that the readers can easily understand. As part of effective communication, the complicated novels such as The Vision Hildegard begins by the explanation of the neurological disorder that has the complicated language which could confuse or trouble the readers have been discussed before the actual content of the book. Proper style and communication strategy assist in relaying the intended information to the audience. Readers may switch off their minds right from the introductory part of the target example if the discussed information does not express the appropriate and inclusive kind of language. As long as the word used does not fit the needs of the readers, communication is interfered with hence hindering the intended purpose of the author (Beattie & Ellis, 2017).

As discussed in class, language is one of the characteristics which differentiate humans from animals. The difference comes in due to the different structure of the human vocals. In target example, the author uses written language structure to reach out to his audience (Cappellini, 2015). Just like the spoken language, the written word is effective in conveying the intended messages. However, it is essential that the author addresses the issues that may hinder communication as far as the language used is concerned. The human language and communication happen to be unique phenomena and with no significant analogs in the world of animals. It is not worth supposing that existing gaps between the word and the information being communicated in the target example are bridgeable. As such, it is wise for the author of the book to use a functional language particularly at the points where the content concerns issues that are profoundly neurological. The only way for average readers to understand the information being communicated is through use of simple language that is not only attractive but also understandable to all (Beattie & Ellis, 2017).

As far as the content is concerned, the author provides stories about the neurological disorders of the patients that he treats. The material offers essential communication to psychologists, neurologists, and the general readers. For purposes of enhancing proper notification, the patients are organized into four different parts. The similar patterns of the behavior of patients, as well as psychology, assist in understanding the dysfunction concept of the human brain (Cappellini, 2015). Additionally, communication can be achieved using other means. The different methods could be considered as a language since they are understandable to the general readers (Beattie & Ellis, 2017). Sacks describe the significance of music for the brains of humans. Music can be treated as a form of language which is understandable to a particular group of people.

Language and communication form the basis of the association amongst people in the society. When language used in a particular context is not useful, communication is hindered, and people fail to learn from one another or the intended information being passed (Beattie & Ellis, 2017). The target example has tried to make communication as efficient as possible. However, there are aspects where the book fails to employ some of the essential characteristics of effective communication. For purposes of enhancing proper communication with all readers regardless of their background about neurology, it is necessary to provide a detailed explanation of the terms involved in the content so that the language becomes appealing to the average readers (Cappellini, 2015). Additionally, the various language structures could be used where necessary in the target example to make the communication process as simple as possible.

On the side of readers, it is essential to use logics to understand the information being passed by the target example. For instance, some terms may be new to the readers of the book. If the words are not explained, then the readers should use logics to link the information provided by the terms hence establish meanings. The logic can be primarily described as a normative, formal and symbolic way of reasoning. Readers are required to have the reasoning skills to develop the intended meanings of information being passed. The logics may be limited to semantics but can still apply to all communication issues (Beattie & Ellis, 2017).

Theme of Oppression

The theme of oppression has been the significant concentration for the two authors: Hughes and Eliot. In some papers and other pieces of work, they have discussed this theme in totality and placed so much concentration in it to the extent that it has been the sign of identity to all of them. They have described and shown it in some ways as well; a pure show that they were passionate about educating people on this and also telling people that the act of oppression is not on end at all. It is also very clear from all their pieces of work that oppression is a traditional act that has lived amongst the people and keeps on breeding amongst the same people as well. It is true to say that Hughes and Eliot have concentrated and articulated the theme of oppression to the best of their knowledge.

Langston Hughes has shown this first in “Harlem” where it has stood out the extremes that oppression can lead people. The oppression that is talked about here is just through the use of authority or the application of power (Hughes, Pp. 1-4). In any case, where one can identify oppression, it also stands out obvious that leadership and an aspect of authority is always key leading to this heinous act as such. This is a poem in which the narrator can describe a black girl who had a dream but again the dream kept on disappearing from her. She did not have sufficient freedom, and factually she always keeps the dream alive of having her freedom go through as such. This author here is also hiding from oppression by hiding in the attic; this has been showcased by the author through the utmost use of personification and symbolism. The wall here in the poem is also shown symbolically as something which is blocking her dream; something that is impeding what she wants in life from happening (Hughes, Pp. 4-7). It is not an easy part for all them, but again she has to cope by her internal drives which push her to try and pursue this dream in as much as each time she keeps on hitting the wall. It is very true for any sane person to agree to the fact that oppression is like a wall that impedes on someone’s dream; a dream that one would like to pursue but again her interests are not being met completely. This is a wall that blocks anything that she would like to pursue and leaves her with no personal opinions about her dreams as such.

T.S Eliot is also another author who has for some times faced criticism for his constant misogynistic treatment of ladies through his poetry. There are also a few who have been able to consider the role that he portrays women in supporting his poetic themes. The narrative that is played at “The love song of J. Alfred Prufrock” indicates pure dominance by women; this is done both contemporarily and mythically; they have been able to illustrate the brutal relationship that exists between the two sides of gender in our society (Eliot, Pp. 1-3). The said an intensely personal relationship is considered to be the same analogy just as the relation of the individual and the society; just as any other individual, women must also be able to decide to either speak in support of or against their oppressors or rather just keep silent or accept their circumstances. In this case, one must be able to understand the fact when they feel that they are much oppressed, they need to ensure that they stand up for themselves and not wait for someone to do it for them. One should not wait for someone else to do it for them but rather show their bravery by ensuring that they work so hard to the best of their knowledge to kick out any form of oppression that might be taking place as such. They should either stand up or keep quiet and stop complaining; there is no need for one to keep on complaining yet they do not stand up for the best that they think of (Eliot, Pp. 4-5). Either option will again place the women at risk of more advanced subjugation; this way the scenography of this whole poems already acts as sufficient backdrop to a form of a crippled social world that is well populated by individuals who are trying to see their voice being heard.

Oppression by Hughes is another serious poem that also looks to this thematic expression. In this poem, the party narrates not only a poem but also a lyric that has no character in it. The title of this same poem also offers an atmosphere that is intense already. The first stanza even in itself already places the idea of oppression in the right context where we see that people are in a position where there are no dreams which are not available and also no songs that are also available to the singers as well. He believes that if the world were free from oppression, then people would sing freely and dream freely, but again it is as a result of continuous oppression that the same people cannot do this but only when the oppressor unties the knots as such.

SLAM Magazine

What magazine did you buy and why?

I bought SLAM magazine. I prompted to buy this magazine because it keeps me updated on diverse matters concerning basketball. I get to read about the NBA, know the current scores of various teams and stay up to date with current news circulating in the realm of basketball. It contains gripping and bright photos of my favorite players making amazing basket scores. It also contains the latest trending advertisement of quality brands such as Nike and Jordan’s sportswear. It also provides a reader with statistical data.

What is the purpose of the magazine and what values does it promote?

The purpose of the magazine is to disseminate news relating to basketball globally and to promote basketball sport and culture. It informs those who are interested in basketball on the most important details, concerning namely different players who have moved to new teams or the lineup for major league teams. It acts as an advertising platform as well.

Who is the magazine target audience (demographics and psychographics)?

The target audience of SLAM magazine is basketball fans (with more than 90% of them being players as well). The major audience ranges from 16 to 30 years old. The magazine expands its audience by using an online platform via their website It is informative and, above all, contains news on everything related to basketball. It has over 500,000 unique users and approximately over 4 million page views per one month. Statistics shows it has a circulation of 150,000 and the readership clocks about 900,000 with 6 readers per copy. Slam magazine is male-dominated with male readership.

What percentage of the magazine is dedicated to advertising?

The magazine dedicates a large fraction to advertising since various shoe brands like Nike and Jordan advertise on a regular basis. Other organizations such as cloth-line brands also advertise there.

How much does it cost to place a full page ad?

Advertisement in SLAM costs about $15,580 per display for the advert to appear on a full page once, $14,600 to appear four times, $13,700 to appear eight times and $12,920 to be featured twelve times. The charges also vary according to the page size and the size of the advertisement: there are many options like a spread, a full page, two thirds of a page, half a page and a third of a page. The charges also vary to when it comes to being featured on the cover page.

Would you buy this magazine again? Why or why not?

Yes, I would certainly buy this magazine again, because it is very entertaining and informative. It is what is considered a quality media, and I like the way the magazine is organized and the information is presented.